Rate Hikes or Rate Cuts? What will the Fed and ECB do?

Central Bank poster FED ECB

The past six weeks have turned the investing world on its head, leaving market participants in a state of suspense regarding the future of U.S. monetary policy and the ripple effects it may have on financial markets. As the Federal Reserve prepares to keep its policy interest rates on hold, all eyes are on Chairman Jerome Powell to offer some clarity.

The Weight of Jerome Powell’s Words

Despite expectations of unchang

ed policy interest rates this Wednesday, Chairman Powell has the capability to significantly influence the market’s direction. His comments are expected to align with previous statements made at the Jackson Hole Symposium and the central bank’s July press conference. However, experts suggest that the question-and-answer session and the updated “dot plot”—policy makers’ projections for interest rates—could be the real game-changers. Just because this meeting isn’t widely considered to matter that much because everyone knows what is going to happen doesn’t mean it is insignificant.

Market Volatility gone?

In an environment where the Cboe Volatility Index (VIX)—often known as Wall Street’s “fear gauge”—closed below 14 on Friday, investors might feel they are navigating through calmer waters. However, the somewhat complacent market attitude raises concerns as a complacent market can sometimes be more susceptible to a negative shock.

Labour, Inflation

Markets have been on a rollercoaster ride lately as inflation has sped up, coinciding with a slowdown in the U.S. labour market and broader economic indicators. The general anticipation is that the Federal Reserve could initiate interest rate cuts by mid-next year. Any deviation from this expectation could severely destabilise U.S. equities while propelling Treasury yields and the U.S. dollar upward.

Post-Meeting Press Conference

The most crucial statements are likely to emerge in the post-meeting press conference following the Federal Reserve’s meeting. It’s during this 45 to 60-minute window that market dynamics are often most affected. The focus will especially be on discussions concerning projected interest rate cuts for 2024, and whether Chairman Powell will challenge these expectations.

Trends and Challenges

Since the start of August, there has been a noticeable uptick in corporate and personal bankruptcies, partly fueled by the Federal Reserve’s most aggressive series of interest-rate hikes since the 1980s. Meanwhile, job growth has been stalling, and consumer-price inflation is on the rise. Events such as the resumption of student loan payments, a potential government shutdown, and a strike involving major U.S. car manufacturers add layers of complexity to an already convoluted economic picture.

The Balancing Act

Chairman Powell has a tightrope to walk, addressing various economic indicators and investor concerns. While traders see a pause in interest rate changes as almost a certainty this week, the outcome of the Federal Reserve meeting could have far-reaching implications for the financial markets.

The combined impact of restarting student loan payments, a potential government shutdown, and an auto union workers’ strike could have a substantial negative effect on GDP growth in the fourth quarter.

In this climate of uncertainty, investors will be keen to see if the Federal Reserve’s actions align with the market’s assumptions about future rate cuts. Failure to meet these expectations could once again destabilise an already sensitive market environment.

The European Central Bank

Last week, the European Central Bank (ECB) left the financial world abuzz by hiking its key rate to an unprecedented 4%, following intensive deliberations over updated economic forecasts. The rate hike, although dramatic, may signal the ECB’s comfort with current monetary policy levels. Yet, amid bleak short-term inflation forecasts and economic uncertainties, questions arise regarding how long this plateau in interest rates will persist.

The ECB’s announcement was far from straightforward. While the statement did not rule out future hikes entirely, it asserted that maintaining current rates for a sufficiently long duration could facilitate the timely return of inflation to the target. 

Grim Outlook for the EU

ECB staff macroeconomic projections have painted a grim picture for inflation, anticipated to average at 5.6% this year, a slight uptick from the previous 5.4% forecast. Inflation for next year is predicted to sit at 3.2%, adjusted from an earlier 3% forecast. However, the medium-term forecast for 2025 shows a slight reduction from 2.2% to 2.1%, indicating some moderation.

Inflation Expectations

Deutsche Bank analysts project no rate cuts before September 2024, implying a 12-month standstill at the current 4% rate. Nonetheless, challenges persist, including the potential ramifications of surging oil prices, which recently reached a 10-month high. Such inflationary pressures from oil could jeopardise both European and U.S. economic landscapes.

Alternate Scenarios and Risks

Regrettably, inflation remains robust and tenacious, exhibiting structural characteristics. Present disinflationary influences, including goods and commodity prices, are showing signs of waning efficacy. In the absence of a compelling trajectory towards lower prices, it is conceivable that the European Central Bank may deem its anti-inflationary efforts incomplete, thereby elevating the possibility of additional rate increases in the foreseeable future.

The Road Ahead

The ECB’s rate hike to 4% serves as a significant turning point for European monetary policy and has immediate implications for households and the broader economic environment. Yet, questions about the sustainability of this rate, as well as the broader economic outlook, persist.

With looming challenges such as rising oil prices and the possibility of more entrenched inflation, the ECB faces a complex web of decisions in the near future. Investors and policy analysts alike will be keenly monitoring subsequent developments, as the central bank’s future moves have the potential to significantly impact the economic climate for years to come.

As we have discussed, both the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank are at juncture, making decisions that are bound to affect the global financial markets and individual wallets alike. While the Fed maintains a cautious stance, its upcoming Q&A and policy projections could trigger market turbulence. On the other side of the Atlantic, the ECB’s historic rate hike to 4% and its ambiguous future plans pose their own set of questions and challenges.

What does this mean for the average investor or consumer? In a landscape marked by volatility and inflationary pressures from surging oil prices, the complacency of today could well become the volatility of tomorrow. Both institutions have highlighted the complexity and interconnectedness of modern economies, where a policy decision in Washington D.C. or Frankfurt can impact everything from your mortgage rate to your portfolio.

It’s essential for anyone with a stake in the economy—which, let’s face it, is all of us—to stay informed and agile. Markets can and do react to the slightest hints or changes in tone from these central banks. While we may not have crystal-clear answers, the importance of being prepared and diversifying your financial strategies cannot be overstated.


Keep an eye out for our updates to stay in the loop.


Risk warning:

This article is for information purposes only. It does not post a buy or sell recommendation for any of the financial instruments herein analysed. 

Deltastock AD assumes no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies or omissions in these materials, nor shall it be liable for damages arising out of any person’s reliance upon the information on this page. 

60% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.

Posted in Investments and tagged , , .

Leave a Reply